Haskell Style Guide

Style guide used in Kowainik.

This document is a collection of best-practices inspired by commercial and free open source Haskell libraries and applications.

Style guide goalsπŸ”—

The purpose of this document is to help developers and people working on Haskell code-bases to have a smoother experience while dealing with code in different situations. This style guide aims to increase productivity by defining the following goals:

  1. Make code easier to understand: ideas for solutions should not be hidden behind complex and obscure code.
  2. Make code easier to read: code arrangement should be immediately apparent after looking at the existing code. Names of functions & variables should be transparent and obvious.
  3. Make code easier to write: developers should think about code formatting rules as little as possible.
  4. Make code easier to maintain: this style guide aims to reduce the burden of maintaining packages using version control systems unless this conflicts with the previous points.

Rule of thumb when working with existing source codeπŸ”—

The general rule is to stick to the same coding style that is already used in the file you are editing. If you must make significant style modifications, then commit them independently from the functional changes so that someone looking back through the changelog can easily distinguish between them.

IndentationπŸ”—

Indent code blocks with 4 spaces.

Indent where keywords with 2 spaces and always put a where keyword on a new line.

showDouble :: Double -> String
showDouble n
    | isNaN n      = "NaN"
    | isInfinite n = "Infinity"
    | otherwise    = show n

greet :: IO ()
greet = do
    putStrLn "What is your name?"
    name <- getLine
    putStrLn $ greeting name
  where
    greeting :: String -> String
    greeting name = "Hey " ++ name ++ "!"

Line lengthπŸ”—

The maximum allowed line length is 90 characters. If your line of code exceeds this limit, try to split code into smaller chunks or break long lines over multiple shorter ones.

WhitespacesπŸ”—

No trailing whitespaces (use some tools to automatically cleanup trailing whitespaces).

Surround binary operators with a single space on either side.

AlignmentπŸ”—

Use comma-leading style for formatting module exports, lists, tuples, records, etc.

answers :: [Maybe Int]
answers =
    [ Just 42
    , Just 7
    , Nothing
    ]

If a function definition doesn’t fit the line limit then align multiple lines according to the same separator like ::, =>, ->.

printQuestion
    :: Show a
    => Text  -- ^ Question text
    -> [a]   -- ^ List of available answers
    -> IO ()

Align records with every field on a separate line with leading commas.

data Foo = Foo
    { fooBar  :: Bar
    , fooBaz  :: Baz
    , fooQuux :: Quux
    } deriving stock (Eq, Show, Generic)
      deriving anyclass (FromJSON, ToJSON)

Align sum types with every constructor on its own line with leading = and |.

data TrafficLight
    = Red
    | Yellow
    | Green
    deriving stock (Show, Read, Eq, Ord, Enum, Bounded, Ix)

The indentation of a line should not depend on the length of any identifier in preceding lines.

Try to follow the above rule inside function definitions but without fanatism:

-- + Good
createFoo = Foo
    <$> veryLongBar
    <*> veryLongBaz

-- - Bad
createFoo = Foo <$> veryLongBar
                <*> veryLongBaz

-- - Meh
createFoo =
    Foo  -- there's no need to put the constructor on a separate line and have an extra line
    <$> veryLongBar
    <*> veryLongBaz

Basically, it is often possible to join consequent lines without introducing alignment dependency. Try not to span multiple short lines unnecessarily.

If a function application must spawn multiple lines to fit within the maximum line length, then write one argument on each line following the head, indented by one level:

veryLongProductionName
    firstArgumentOfThisFunction
    secondArgumentOfThisFunction
    (DummyDatatype withDummyField1 andDummyField2)
    lastArgumentOfThisFunction

NamingπŸ”—

Functions and variablesπŸ”—

  • lowerCamelCase for function and variable names.
  • UpperCamelCase for data types, typeclasses and constructors.

Try not to create new operators.

-- What does this 'mouse operator' mean? :thinking_suicide:
(~@@^>) :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> (a -> c -> d) -> (b -> f c) -> a -> f d

Do not use ultra-short or indescriptive names like a, par, g unless the types of these variables are general enough.

-- + Good
mapSelect :: forall a . (a -> Bool) -> (a -> a) -> (a -> a) -> [a] -> [a]
mapSelect test ifTrue ifFalse = go
  where
    go :: [a] -> [a]
    go [] = []
    go (x:xs) = if test x
        then ifTrue  x : go xs
        else ifFalse x : go xs

-- - Bad
mapSelect :: forall a . (a -> Bool) -> (a -> a) -> (a -> a) -> [a] -> [a]
mapSelect p f g = go
  where
    go :: [a] -> [a]
    go [] = []
    go (x:xs) = if p x
        then f x : go xs
        else g x : go xs

Do not introduce unnecessarily long names for variables.

-- + Good
map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]
map _ []     = []
map f (x:xs) = f x : map f xs

-- - Bad
map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]
map _ [] = []
map function (firstElement:remainingList) =
    function firstElement : map function remainingList

For readability reasons, do not capitalize all letters when using an abbreviation as a part of a longer name. For example, write TomlException instead of TOMLException.

Unicode symbols are allowed only in modules that already use unicode symbols. If you create a unicode name, you should also create a non-unicode one as an alias.

Data typesπŸ”—

Creating data types is extremely easy in Haskell. It is usually a good idea to introduce a custom data type (enum or newtype) instead of using a commonly used data type (like Int, String, Set Text, etc.).

type aliases are allowed only for specializing general types:

-- + Good
data StateT s m a
type State s = StateT s Identity

-- - Bad
type Size = Int

Use the data type name as the constructor name for data with single constructor and newtype.

data User = User
    { userId   :: Int
    , userName :: String
    }

The field name for a newtype must be prefixed by un followed by the type name.

newtype Size = Size
    { unSize :: Int
    }

newtype App a = App
    { unApp :: ReaderT Context IO a
    }

Field names for the record data type should start with the full name of the data type.

-- + Good
data HealthReading = HealthReading
    { healthReadingDate        :: UTCTime
    , healthReadingMeasurement :: Double
    }

It is acceptable to use an abbreviation as the field prefix if the data type name is too long.

-- + Acceptable
data HealthReading = HealthReading
    { hrDate        :: UTCTime
    , hrMeasurement :: Double
    }

CommentsπŸ”—

Separate end-of-line comments from the code with 2 spaces.

newtype Measure = Measure
    { unMeasure :: Double  -- ^ See how 2 spaces separate this comment
    }

Write Haddock documentation for the top-level functions, function arguments and data type fields. The documentation should give enough information to apply the function without looking at its definition.

Use block comment style ({- | and -}) for Haddock in multiple line comments.

-- + Good
{- | Example of multi-line block comment which is very long
and doesn't fit single line.
-}
foo :: Int -> [a] -> [a]

-- + Also good
-- | Single-line short comment.
foo :: Int -> [a] -> [a]

-- ~ Bad
-- | Example of multi-line block comment which is very long
-- and doesn't fit single line.
foo :: Int -> [a] -> [a]

For commenting function arguments, data type constructors and their fields, you are allowed to use end-of-line Haddock comments if they fit line length limit. Otherwise, use block style comments. It is allowed to align end-of-line comments with each other. But it is forbidden to use comments of different types (pre or post) for the function arguments, data type constructors, and fields.

-- + Good
{- | 'replicate' @n x@ returns list of length @n@ with @x@ as the value of
every element. This function is lazy in its returned value.
-}
replicate
    :: Int  -- ^ Length of returned list
    -> a    -- ^ Element to populate list
    -> [a]

-- - Bad
{- | 'replicate' @n x@ returns list of length @n@ with @x@ as the value of
every element. This function is lazy in its returned value.
-}
replicate
    :: Int  -- ^ Length of returned list
    {- | Element to populate list -}
    -> a
    -> [a]

If possible, include typeclass laws and function usage examples into the documentation.

{- | The class of semigroups (types with an associative binary operation).

Instances should satisfy the associativity law:

* @x '<>' (y '<>' z) = (x '<>' y) '<>' z@
-}
class Semigroup a where
    (<>) :: a -> a -> a


{- | The 'intersperse' function takes a character and places it
between the characters of a 'Text'.

>>> T.intersperse '.' "SHIELD"
"S.H.I.E.L.D"
-}
intersperse :: Char -> Text -> Text

Guideline for module formattingπŸ”—

Use these tools for automatic module formatting:

{-# LANGUAGE #-}πŸ”—

Put OPTIONS_GHC pragma before LANGUAGE pragmas in a separate section. Write each LANGUAGE pragma on its own line, sort them alphabetically and align by max width among them.

{-# OPTIONS_GHC -fno-warn-orphans #-}

{-# LANGUAGE ApplicativeDo       #-}
{-# LANGUAGE ScopedTypeVariables #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TypeApplications    #-}

Default extensionsπŸ”—

You can put commonly-used language extensions into default-extensions in the .cabal file. Here is the list of extensions this style guide allows one to put in there:

ConstraintKinds
DeriveGeneric
DerivingStrategies
GeneralizedNewtypeDeriving
InstanceSigs
KindSignatures
LambdaCase
OverloadedStrings
RecordWildCards
ScopedTypeVariables
StandaloneDeriving
TupleSections
TypeApplications
ViewPatterns

Export listsπŸ”—

Use the following rules to format the export section:

  1. Always write an explicit export list.
  2. Indent the export list by 4 spaces.
  3. You can split the export list into sections. Use Haddock to assign names to these sections.
  4. Classes, data types and type aliases should be written before functions in each section.
module Map
    ( -- * Data type
      Map
    , Key
    , empty

      -- * Update
    , insert
    , insertWith
    , alter
    ) where

ImportsπŸ”—

Always use explicit import lists or qualified imports.

Exception: modules that only reexport other entire modules.

Use your judgement to choose between explicit import lists or qualified imports. However, qualified imports are recommended in the following situations:

  • Name conflicts
  • Long export lists
  • A library is designed for qualified imports, e.g.Β tomland

This import policy makes the code more maintainable and robust against changes in dependent libraries.

Choose the reasonable names for qualified imports:

-- + Good
import qualified Data.Text as Text
import qualified Data.ByteString as BS
import qualified Toml

-- - Bad
import qualified GitHub as C
import qualified App.Server as Srv
import qualified App.Service as Svc

Imports should be grouped in the following order:

  1. Non-qualified imports from Hackage packages.
  2. Non-qualified imports from the current project.
  3. Qualified imports from Hackage packages.
  4. Qualified imports from the current project.

Put a blank line between each group of imports.

Put 2 blank lines after the import section.

The imports in each group should be sorted alphabetically by module name.

module MyProject.Foo
    ( Foo (..)
    ) where

import Control.Exception (catch, try)
import Data.Traversable (for)

import MyProject.Ansi (errorMessage, infoMessage)

import qualified Data.Aeson as Json
import qualified Data.Text as Text

import qualified MyProject.BigModule as Big


data Foo
...

Data declarationπŸ”—

Refer to the Alignment section to see how to format data type declarations.

Records for data types with multiple constructors are forbidden.

-- - Bad
data Foo
    = Bar { bar1 :: Int, bar2 :: Double }
    | Baz { baz1 :: Int, baz2 :: Double, baz3 :: Text }

-- + Good
data Foo
    = FooBar Bar
    | FooBaz Baz

data Bar = Bar
    { bar1 :: Int
    , bar2 :: Double
    }

data Baz = Baz
    { baz1 :: Int
    , baz2 :: Double
    , baz3 :: Text
    }

-- + Also acceptable
data Foo
    = Bar Int Double
    | Baz Int Double Text

StrictnessπŸ”—

Fields of data type constructors should be strict. Specify strictness explicitly with !. This helps to avoid space leaks and gives you an error instead of a warning in case you forget to initialize some fields.

-- + Good
data Settings = Settings
    { settingsHasTravis  :: !Bool
    , settingsConfigPath :: !FilePath
    , settingsRetryCount :: !Int
    }

-- - Bad
data Settings = Settings
    { settingsHasTravis  :: Bool
    , settingsConfigPath :: FilePath
    , settingsRetryCount :: Int
    }

For modules with many data types it is acceptable to enable the StrictData extension.

DerivingπŸ”—

Always specify a deriving strategy for each deriving clause. Use DerivingStrategies to explicitly specify the way you want to derive type classes.

Type classes in the deriving section should always be surrounded by parentheses.

Derive Show and Eq instances for all introduced data types where possible.

For newtypes prefer to use newtype strategy of deriving.

{-# LANGUAGE DeriveAnyClass             #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DerivingStrategies         #-}
{-# LANGUAGE GeneralizedNewtypeDeriving #-}


newtype Id a = Id
    { unId :: Int
    } deriving stock    (Show, Generic)
      deriving newtype  (Eq, Ord, Hashable)
      deriving anyclass (FromJSON, ToJSON)

Function declarationπŸ”—

All top-level functions must have type signatures.

All functions inside a where block must have type signatures. Explicit type signatures help to avoid cryptic type errors.

You might need the -XScopedTypeVariables extension to write the polymorphic types of functions inside a where block.

Surround . after forall in type signatures with spaces.

lookup :: forall a f . Typeable a => TypeRepMap f -> Maybe (f a)

If the function type signature is very long, then place the type of each argument under its own line with respect to alignment.

sendEmail
    :: forall env m
    .  ( MonadLog m
       , MonadEmail m
       , WithDb env m
       )
    => Email
    -> Subject
    -> Body
    -> Template
    -> m ()

If the line with argument names is too big, then put each argument on its own line and separate it somehow from the body section.

sendEmail
    toEmail
    subject@(Subject subj)
    body
    Template{..}  -- default body variables
  = do
    <code goes here>

In other cases, place an = sign on the same line where the function definition is.

Put operator fixity before operator signature:

-- | Flipped version of '<$>'.
infixl 1 <&>
(<&>) :: Functor f => f a -> (a -> b) -> f b
as <&> f = f <$> as

Put pragmas immediately following the function they apply to.

-- | Lifted version of 'T.putStrLn'.
putTextLn :: MonadIO m => Text -> m ()
putTextLn = liftIO . Text.putStrLn
{-# INLINE putTextLn #-}
{-# SPECIALIZE putTextLn :: Text -> IO () #-}

In case of data type definitions, you must put the pragma before the type it applies to. Example:

data TypeRepMap (f :: k -> Type) = TypeRepMap
    { fingerprintAs :: {-# UNPACK #-} !(PrimArray Word64)
    , fingerprintBs :: {-# UNPACK #-} !(PrimArray Word64)
    , trAnys        :: {-# UNPACK #-} !(Array Any)
    , trKeys        :: {-# UNPACK #-} !(Array Any)
    }

if-then-else clausesπŸ”—

Prefer guards over if-then-else where possible.

-- + Good
showParity :: Int -> Bool
showParity n
    | even n    = "even"
    | otherwise = "odd"

-- - Meh
showParity :: Int -> Bool
showParity n =
    if even n
    then "even"
    else "odd"

Align if, then and else lines with the same level of indentation:

digitOrNumber :: Int -> Text
digitOrNumber i =
    if i >= 0 && i < 10
    then "This is a digit"
    else "This is a number"

When writing monadic code in do-blocks where guards cannot be used, add one indentation level before then and else:

choose
    :: Text  -- ^ Question text.
    -> NonEmpty Text  -- ^ List of available options.
    -> IO Text  -- ^ The chosen option.
choose question choices = do
    printQuestion question choices
    answer <- prompt
    if null answer
        then pure (head choices)
        else pure answer

In the code outside do-blocks you can align if-then-else clauses like you would normal expressions:

shiftInts :: [Int] -> [Int]
shiftInts = map $ \n -> if even n then n + 1 else n - 1

Case expressionsπŸ”—

Align the -> arrows in the alternatives when it helps readability.

-- + Good
firstOrDefault :: [a] -> a -> a
firstOrDefault list def = case list of
    []  -> def
    x:_ -> x

-- - Bad
foo :: IO ()
foo = getArgs >>= \case
    []                      -> do
        putStrLn "No arguments provided"
        runWithNoArgs
    firstArg:secondArg:rest -> do
        putStrLn $ "The first argument is " ++ firstArg
        putStrLn $ "The second argument is " ++ secondArg
    _                       -> pure ()

Use the -XLambdaCase extension when you perform pattern matching over the last argument of the function:

fromMaybe :: a -> Maybe a -> a
fromMaybe v = \case
    Nothing -> v
    Just x  -> x

let expressionsπŸ”—

Write every let-binding on a new line:

isLimitedBy :: Integer -> Natural -> Bool
isLimitedBy n limit =
    let intLimit = toInteger limit
    in n <= intLimit

Put a let before each variable inside a do block. In pure functions try to avoid let. Instead, use where.

General recommendationsπŸ”—

Try to split code into separate modules.

Avoid abusing point-free style. Sometimes code is clearer when not written in point-free style:

-- + Good
foo :: Int -> a -> Int
foo n x = length $ replicate n x

-- - Bad
foo :: Int -> a -> Int
foo = (length . ) . replicate

Prefer pure over return.

Use -XApplicativeDo in combination with -XRecordWildCards to prevent position-sensitive errors where possible.

GHC optionsπŸ”—

Code should be compilable with the following ghc options without warnings:

  • -Wall
  • -Wcompat
  • -Widentities
  • -Wincomplete-uni-patterns
  • -Wincomplete-record-updates
  • -Wredundant-constraints
  • -Wmissing-export-lists
  • -Wpartial-fields
  • -Wmissing-deriving-strategies
  • -Wunused-packages

Enable -fhide-source-paths and -freverse-errors for cleaner compiler output.

Enable .hie files creation for your projects in the .hie/ directory:

ghc-options:  -fwrite-ide-info
              -hiedir=.hie